Here and throughout the book, his anecdotes about the people involved are as fascinating as the facts about the drugs. The most important take away, however, is that science is about hard work, attention to detail, innovative thinking, advanced analytic skills, serendipity, and the patience of Job. We should strive for further refinements in risk prediction to individualize interventions. Italy had a low rate of heart disease and the Mediterranean diet was promoted as a healthy lifestyle. For scientists in the drug industry, health care professionals, students of medicine, and all those intrigued by the basic human drive to explore and discover, Triumph of the Heart offers a compelling view of one of the most important drug discoveries of our time.
The first five chapters are an exposition of the classical foundations of general relativity and Einstein's equations. But even more importantly, they were each willing to invest their careers in analysis that may never lead to anything more than a dead end. So, a huge number of patients taking this drug get no benefit, but are subject to myalgia, memory loss, in men there is the reduction of free testosterone--already a concern for aging men--of up to 40%, increased cancer risk and diabetes. Once researchers published a paper in Nature summarizing the effect of clofibrate on lipids, a flurry of research began on fibrates resulting in second- and third-generation fibrates that were more potent and safer than clofibrate. Clofibrate, commercially available as Atromid-S, was the first fibrate marketed for lowering cholesterol. I started taking Lipitor when they first came out.
Likewise, the tableau of Roger Newton falling to his knees to plead for bringing atorvastatin into clinical evaluation at a 1990 meeting with senior executives at Parke-Davis appears more like a scene from a swashbuckler novel than from a corporate meeting room. I know it's the right thing to do, and I'm begging you to do it. He spends too little time on the toxicology issues that almost sunk statins at the start. The personalities of the various scientists and Nobel laureates described in the book are highly entertaining. Simvastatin is a synthetic derivative of a fermentation product.
These drugs poison your body. That being said, each of these scientists did seem to share a common approach to research: carefully testing hypotheses, repeating peer study results to confirm them, and patiently exploring complex biochemical pathways over periods of decades. Smith of Merck developed another statin that was effective in lowering cholesterol levels: Zocor simvastatin. Although the identification of the actual structure of cholesterol was difficult, we see that the synthesis of this molecule was even more challenging. In addition, the drugs available at the time—specifically, bile acid sequestrants, niacin, and fibrates—were not ideal.
It is a tale of serendipity, hard graft, frustration, then triumph, followed by company merger, and hostile takeover; and the human stories are just as interesting as the underlying evolution of the drug. They also suggested that while preferential conformations are exhibited by the molecule in the solid at 298. The physicians, physicists, and chemists showed an incredible ability to doggedly pursue answers to specific questions — understanding that the results might influence human health. The statin molecule is what is called a competitive inhibitor. The story opens with the research of Heinrich Wieland and Adolf Windaus of Germany who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1927 and 1928, respectively, for their work on cholesterol. They are mathematically precise, but they require only calculus-level knowledge in mathematics. Book focuses on mathematical problems about the Einstein equations and their sources.
Much evidence implicates inflammation in the thinning of the fibrous cap and the disruption of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. A few individuals emerge as heroes who pitted their passion and persistence against countervailing forces in their own industry. In yet another example of a compound being used to elucidate biological processes, Michael S. This book brings it all back into focus, with an emphasis on the science, as well as the dedication of the scientists. In fact, Merck shut down the statin program when it saw toxicity in long-term animal studies.
I strongly recommend it - the book is a real triumph. But a decision by upper management put the clinical evaluation program on hold for several years, delaying the availability of the first statin on the market in the United States. These long digressions will not interest general medical or lay audiences, but they will engage more chemically minded readers. A few individuals emerge as heroes who pitted their passion and persistence against countervailing forces in their own industry. This step, this chemical reaction, is catalyzed by an enzyme that removes an oxygen atom from a precursor molecule of cholesterol. A third hero of the statin development drama, Alfred Alberts of Merck, encountered fewer problems in developing lovastatin.
It also tells of the serendipity involved in discovering a new molecule as revealed by the lead chemist, Bruce Roth, who made the core pyrrole piece of the Lipitor molecule. This analog of mevastatin did not cause tumors in dogs. Meanwhile, the story of the statins begins with Akira Endo discovering the first statin, mevastatin, in 1973 while working at Sankyo in Japan. But how did these remarkable, life-saving drugs come into being? Parson and coworkers at the Mayo Clinic confirmed the results of Altschul. The author was a member of the group at Parke-Davis that discovered Lipitor, a group that included well-known scientists Bruce Roth and and Roger Newton.