That is not apparent from the work itself but knowing about it adds new depths to our understanding. What if we hadn't been given all this personal information about Shostakovich and Elmira? Sketches for some of the material date from 1946. This is not the only cryptogram, however, as well as his own name, Shostakovich incorporated the name of one of his female pupils — Elmira Nazirova. Bach Werke Verzeichnis: Kleine Ausgabe, nach der von Wolfgang Schmieder vorgelegten 2. The finale starts off with an Andante that seems mired in a slow-motion haze. This motif would appear in numerous subsequent works by the composer, like the Violin Concerto No. Dmitri Shostakovich was born in St.
Shostakovich was having intense correspondence with Nazirova around this time, and her name a mixture of some Western notation and the Solfège — E-La-Mi-Re-A is proclaimed by the haunting solo horn. His procedure can be likened to that of a painter who creates a canvas with a large number of figures and includes a self-portrait in a conspicuous spot. On March 5, 1953, Stalin died. Prelude and Fugue in E minor, 855, is the 10th for keyboard harpsichord in the first book of , composed in 1722 by. Many of Shostakovich's orchestral and chamber works contain extended passages for one instrument only. The movement ends with a fast flourish into the top ranges of many instruments, leaving the listener on the edge of their seat and wanting more of this music! After this slow introduction, the much faster Allegro section begins, with the aid of the clarinet.
Touches A minor and C Major Bars 27-29 before returning to E minor. This meant that he was forced to work within the constraints of the U. After graduating, Shostakovich earned his money by composing which was all fine until the U. Elmira Nazirova was an Azerbaijani pianist and composer who had studied with Shostakovich. Wars, hardships, repression and brutal criticism affected him but never deterred him from his path. What Shostakovich did with those categories, however, was completely unique. The motif is of ambiguous , giving it an air of uncertainty or hollowness.
Bars 11-13: Subject in Treble. In a letter to Nazirova, Shostakovich himself noted the similarity of the motif to the call in the first movement of 's , a work which he had been listening to around that time: · The same notes are used in both motifs, and both are repeatedly played by the horn. Modulating to the Sub-dominant, A. Preface in English and German. This was 's first symphony in eight years, and the gap between this and the 1945 Ninth owed nothing to a lack of inspiration in the genre.
Bars 13-15: Answer in Bass. Forty years after the composer's death, it is becoming increasingly clear that Shostakovich's artistic journey has its own internal logic from his first symphony written at the age of 19 to his fifteenth, completed at 65. As in his Fifth Symphony, Shostakovich quotes from one of his settings of : in the first movement, from the second of his Op. The Prelude in , 855a, features as No. But that horn call is so insistent that it is hard to believe it is not there for a specific reason, even if they don't know what the reason is. The second part of this movement is initiated by the flute, which propels the music forward with a chromatic bouncing rhythm that eventually leads into the bassoon motif that takes us into the panic-ridden central section of the movement. We must add, however, that it is not the notes alone that make this theme so personal: they are all part of the C minor scale and a child could have written them down.
Touches E minor and C major in a sequence in Bars 9-10 , as well as A minor Bar 14. This may seem contrived, but it is really nothing particularly new. Bar 20-22: Subject in Bass. This may be false, and it seems that scholars and fans alike are unable to agree on this, but the music does can certainly reflect the tyranny and dictatorship that was so prevalent throughout the country. In 1937 he took a position teaching at Leningrad Conservatory, and alongside this he kept on composing.
This motif is first introduced by the winds. Most sources give the summer of 1953 as the date of composition for the Tenth Symphony. The material used in the construction of this Period is mainly drawn from the figure used as an accompaniment in the left hand of the opening bars of the Prelude. This motif then stays in the background as the movement gathers momentum again, which leads to a jaunty bassoon solo that somehow moves through and past the shadows that have covered the rest of this symphony. Of course it is, and this symphony has been admired by musicians and audiences who had never heard of Elmira Nazirova. It's about Stalin and the Stalin years. There is an underlying bitter tone within this movement which is never quite resolved, even by end of the movement.
His statement in Sovietskaia Muzyka was almost absurdly self-deprecatory. It is, in a way, the flip side of the serious first movement, equally tragic but also sarcastic in nature. After meeting with the dictator in 1943, Shostakovich was closely watched and essentially used as a representative for the communism movement. The darkness begins to clear somewhat and the final climax of the movement is fortified by the D-S-C-H motif by the brass and the orchestra begin to show the triumph of hope. Certainly, it can be heard as austere and hostile, sinister and threatening, thereby painting an effective and credible portrait of Stalin, but it might also express anxiety and fear, emotions hardly new to.
Shostakovich used this motif in several of his works most extensively in the Eighth String Quartet. By the tender young age of thirteen, Shostakovich was admitted into the prestigious Petrograd Conservatory, where he learnt piano under Leonid Nikolayev. Renaissance composers for example, Josquin Desprez had already been fond of such subtle games. In discussions of Shostakovich's works, the immediate social context is often overemphasized at the expense of the larger picture. Hysteria and violence are certainly words I think of when the Allegro section gets into full swing, and the anger and passion from the first two movements return to create a pertinent statement from Shostakovich. At this point in time he was also studying composition under the tutelage of Maximillian Shteynberg.
We need this crude joke, maybe, to exorcise our tragic feelings before moving on towards a more tranquil state of mind. It Bach's original down from the original E minor into B minor, with the steady figuration that was originally given by Bach to the left hand being instead assigned to the right hand. Bars 32-34: Answer in Treble. The first step in that direction is made in the third-movement Allegretto, which is jovial and easy-going most of the time, though not impervious to dramatic disruptions. More extended instrumental solos follow for oboe, flute, and bassoon. In her book, Shostakovich: A Life Remembered Princeton University Press, 1994 , Elizabeth Wilson shows, through a number of interviews with people who had been close to the composer, that the symphony dates, at least in part, from 1951, two years earlier than previously thought. The longest movement in the Tenth Symphony is the first, a dark and brooding Moderato describing a huge arch from piano to pianissimo with a great fortissimo climax in the middle.