The third Hagia Sophia construction combined the three traditional basilical plans with the central dome plan in design. The Hagia Sophia was known to be in bad condition in 1261, when Eastern Rome took over the city again. The structure was fortified and was well protected after this period, and remained as a mosque. The stunning mosaics such as the glittering 13th century Deësis mosaic of Christ with John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary. Remains found during the excavations led by A.
Silhouettes of Blue Mosque and Hagia Sophia at sunset The Hagia Sophia Museum 1935 — Under the order of and the Council of Ministers the Hagia Sophia Turkey opened as a museum in 1935. Alternative Titles: Ayasofya, Church of the Holy Wisdom, Great Church, Hagia Sofia Hagia Sophia, Turkish Ayasofya, Latin Sancta Sophia, also called Church of the Holy Wisdom or Church of the Divine Wisdom, built at Constantinople now , in the 6th century ce 532—537 under the direction of the emperor. In the heart of the city lies its most distinctive landmark, the Hagia Sophia, which means Holy Wisdom. After several repairs, however, the dome has lost some of its circular shape, and the diameter has reduced about a foot or more. This basilical structure is known to contain five naves and a monumental entrance; it is also covered by a wooden roof. This construction was abolished in the 17.
The building served as an Orthodox Christian church from 537 until 1453, except for a few decades in the 13th century when it was adapted to be a Catholic cathedral by the Crusaders. The area in the center of this cross is the room of the square base that supports the dome. The mosaics had Christian religious motifs and used the golden color widely. Aya Sofia Constantinople — Gaspare Fossati In 1931, in the leadership of Thomas Whittemore, the Byzantine Institute took the responsibility of recovering the mosaics of the Hagia Sophia after getting touch with the founder of the Turkish Republic-Atatürk who also turned Hagia Sophia to a museum. In addition, other architectural pieces that belong to the monumental entrance can be seen in the west garden. For more than a millennium it was the Cathedral of the. The two that were built earlier were destroyed due to rioting.
It also served as Istanbul's principal mosque for nearly 500 years and was used as a model for many others including the , and. Though covered and uncovered more than once throughout the history, mosaics outstand on the walls of this masterpiece. It took just five years and the manpower of nearly 11,000 people to erect the structure that was the largest Christian church in the world for nearly a thousand years. The fascinating Mosaics of Hagia Sophia tell us many mysterious things about the of this 1. History The Hagia Sophia, one of the historical architectural wonders that still remains standing today, has an important place in the art world with its architecture, grandness, size and functionality.
Even today, those dimensions are impressive, and for almost 1,000 years it was the largest religious building on earth. It would remain a mosque until being converted into a museum in the 1930s. They decorated the walls with Justinianic patterns, flowers, geometric shape and a Gothic style rosette which they designed to be able to hide them. The dome of the Hagia Sophia Turkey is 180 feet high and 100 feet wide and was considered a revolution in the history of architecture. There are stone cannonballs outside the entrance to Hagia Sophia. Use of Mortar and Brick The construction was made using brick and mortar as the main materials for the dome. He used lighter materials, made structural improvements, and incorporated constructive elements that gave the dome its current aspect and dimensions.
Column capitals of Hagia Sophia Amazing facts. Today, the massive dome is surrounded by four minarets which were built during the Ottoman period. As a mosque, it was considered as one of the holiest Islamic temples of the world. The length from the apsis to the outer narthex is 100 m, and the width is 69. The Ottomans turned Hagia Sophia into a mosque in 1453 when they took Constantinople.
In addition, the structure includes columns brought in from the Temple of Artemis in Ephessus to be used in the naves, as well as 8 columns brought from Egypt that support the domes. These elements in the form of spherical triangles are a structural transition between the square shape of the base and the round shape of the dome. It has been said that Hagia Sophia is in such a state of disrepair it desperately needs work. Much of the interior decoration was plastered over after the. In 1932, the arduous works began on restoration of the mosaics. The cross was substituted with the image of the God-bearer, or Mary in 787-797 after the victory of the.
In total, 24 buttresses were built to strengthen and support the four pendentives. Now it is a public museum and a highlight of any visit to Istanbul. The building is most famous for its massive dome and for having relics such as nails from Jesus' True Cross and the Shroud of Mary, which were taken during the Middle Ages by the Crusaders. When Isidore started the reconstruction, he had to rebuild all the interior walls first to make them vertical and strong enough to support the weight of the new dome. Lesson Summary Hagia Sophia, which means Holy Wisdom, is a religious building located in Istanbul, Turkey. In 726, there were many superstitions about the mosaics and icons of. It was converted into a museum a year later, a decision which remains controversial.
Hagia Sophia Often referred to as the eighth wonder of the World, the Hagia Sophia Ayasofya in Turkish in Sultanahmet is easily one of Istanbul's most impressive sights. The construction was made mostly out of brick and mortar. This is truly a masterpiece of architecture and engineering of all time. Isidore the Younger was commissioned to do the reconstruction. The church was the place in which rulers were crowned, and it was also the biggest operational cathedral in the city throughout the Byzantine period. Earning College Credit Did you know… We have over 160 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities.
The original church to occupy the site called the Megale Ekklesia was commissioned by Emperor in 325, razed during a riot in 404, later rebuilt, and destroyed once again in 532 before Justinian commissioned the building that exists today. Iconoclasts means the image breakers. Since then, mosaics were added throughout the Byzantine period, structural modifications were made in both the Byzantine and Ottoman periods, and features important to the Islamic architectural tradition were constructed during Ottoman ownership of the structure. The decorative interior wall coatings were established by dividing single marble blocks into two and combining them in order to create symmetrical shapes. . All the walls of the Hagia Sophia except the ones covered by marble have been decorated with exceptionally beautiful mosaics. Its ground plan is that of a.